Archivo de la categoría: biology

Nervous System

2 components -> Central + Peripheral

Central-> The Brain and  spinal cord 

Peripheral-> Sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another + the central nervous system.
Resultado de imagen de nervous system brain


Resultado de imagen de neutrons motor sensory

Sensory: Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system. An example is Smell: Olfactory sensory neurons are excited by chemical molecules.


Relay: (Only found in the brain, visual system and spinal cord) They allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate, receiving a signal from one neuron to then transfer to another interneuron, resulting in the signal being passed to a motor neuron, which drives the reaction to the stimulus. 


Motor: Part of the central nervous system (CNS) and connect to muscles, glands and organs throughout the body. transmit impulses from the spinal cord to skeletal and smooth muscles, and so directly control all of our muscle movements.


Resultado de imagen de areas brain

Frontal lobe:

    • Personality, behavior, emotions.
    • Judgment, planning, problem solving. 
    • Speaking/writing (Broca’s area) 


  • Body movement (motor strip).


  • Intelligence, concentration, self awareness.

Parietal lobe:

  • Interprets language, words.
  • Sense of touch, pain, temperature (sensory strip). 
  • Interprets signals from vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory.
  • Spatial and visual perception.

Occipital lobe:

  • Interprets vision (color, light, movement).

Temporal lobe:

  • Understanding language (Wernicke’s area).
  • Memory.
  • Hearing. 
  • Sequencing and organization.

Resultado de imagen de areas brain


Voluntary Actions:

  • something you choose to do.
  • Controlled actions.
  • Will.

Involuntary Actions:

  • Something you didn’t mean to do.
  • Actions you can’t control.
  • Comes naturally, we don’t think it through.
  • Unconscious.
  • Brain isn’t involved. 
  • Pupil reflexes.

Human Nutrition

After dedicating 2 lab classes to complete activities 1 and 2 , we had to make a cartoon that represented the alimentary canal in proteins , fats and carbohydrates,  in our group base (Fermin Lucia and I)


2) a) First I see the food, and the salivary glands start working by secreting saliva.

b) Secondly, I ingest the food and start biting and breaking the food into smaller pieces with my teeth.

c) Then, with the help of the saliva, the food softens and the food becomes a bolus.

d) Then, I  gather a lot of saliva in my mouth, and I push the bolus backwards woth my tongue

e) Finally, I swallow all the saliva, that pushes the bolus through the oesofagus, to get to the stomach.


Self evaluation

We found it difficult to understand what a cartoon was and should be. Moreover, we couldn’t organize ourselves in an effective way at first. After thinking about it, we decided to divide the work. Fermin told me what to draw, I drew  and looked up the information and Lucia painted all the comics and helped me to draw. This was amazing, because we all worked in an equal way as a team !

Osmosis and Animal Cells

Our base group, Fermin, Lucia and I were given the task of making a play and a drawing.

Narrator: One day , Oliver got to Zelma’s house and knocked the door.
Oliver: Zelmaa! Can you come outside so that we can talk about what happened?
Zelma: I would love to, but I can not get through this door, only molecules of your type can.
Oliver: I know I can offer you so much. What you are missing, I will complement it. I am feeling a really big ataction and I can’t take it anymore, I think I am getting in.
Zelma: Allright
Oliver: Goingggggg
Narrator: So, Oliver went through the door and some of hia friends followed him.
Zelma: My house isn’t that big, we are too many molecules!
Oliver: Oh noo!
Zelma: The house is becoming bigger and bigger, the walls can’t take it anymore!
Narrator: So, suddenly the house bursted, it exploded.

Process: We found the assignment really difficult at first, because we couldn’t think of a way to explain ósmosis through a play. Then, we realised that it would be easier for the class to unserstand the topic if we explained it in a way in which there were names for molecules and a metaphor for the cell. It was easier to do the project once we chose the roles of the group:

Coordinator: Valentina

Facilitator: Fermin

Supporter: Lucia


Rubric – Biology projects

After listening to all the presentations about biomolecules, following this kind of rubric we had to assess each group. Here are my assesments 🙂

Group 1 (Sofia L) 3 + 4 + 3 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 25

Group 2 (Lucia H) 2 + 3 + 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 3 = 23

Group 3 was our group so we didn’t make a self-evaluation

Group 4 (Tomas) 2 + 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 24

Group 5 (Lucia D)  4 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 24

Group 6 (Agustin) 2 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 25

Group 7 (Fermin) 3 + 4 + 3 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 3 + 3 = 22


Biology Project

Marina, Azul and I, had to made a presentation about structural proteins. Here it is!

Prezi on Structural Proteins

To give you a background, we will tell you about the process.

As for the organization, we used the time Ceci gave us to do the project in class and that helped a lot. We divided the things we couldn’t finish in class in equal parts, so that each of could finish a part of the project and be the ‘especialist’ on that topic.

We took the information from different sites according to the different topics, for example, the examples of the different structural protein molecules were taken from this site from where we got a general idea and then looked in different places to complete each topic.

We had 2 drawbacks. The fact that we got the group of structural proteins was difficut as most of the informatin we found was about functional proteins, the group that belongs to Lucia D,, Renata and Violeta. The other drawback was related to the model, as we didn’t have dough from the colors that belong to each element.

Variation and Selection

«Working in pairs, you watch the videos on the entry and take notes, brainstorming, using bullet points, etc…, to answer:» I have worked with Nina Fischer

What did I learn today? Question it.

I have learnt that variation is the differences between the organisims from the same species, intraspecific, or between different species, intervariation.  The causes of variation may be by genetic, like meiosis, mutation or fusion of gametes, or environmental, which affects how genes are expressed, influence. When living organisms reproduce themselves, their offspring are not the exact copy of them, they are different from their parents and from the other offsprings. Each offspring gets a different combination of genes from their parents and thats why they end up being all different.

The variations that make an animal or plant more likely to survive in an environment are called adaption. Adaption makes the organism succesful, which means he is able to survive and pass on those characteristic that helped him survive in that environment.

Mind map

Link it to other subjects.

History, because we could think about how did we end up being who we are now, and thats our history.


Video 1

Video 2

Questions 4 and 5

4 i) That there are more people with free earlobes than people with attached earlobe, according to the gender, the number vary in that sense.

ii) 8

iii) That still, not all of us have attached earlobe because not all our parents had that characteristic, so it wasn’t passed on to many of us. The people that have an attached earlobe will pass it on to the following generation and with time, evolution will ocurr.

5a)  A special leg to be able so that it’s easier to stand on trees. Feathers, to be able to fly and protect themselves from cold times. Beak, to be able to get insects in the ground, having a large span of beack to reach them.

b) There are many birds and according to their body size, the wings will always be different.

c i) As we can see in the table it says that birds with a wing lenght of 66-67 mm survived  346 and 349 days, while the other ones did not even get to 300.


d) Because the ones more likely to survive are those birds, so they are the ones that will be able to reproduce passing on their characteristics, while the other ones will not have that big chance to survive , as well as the chance to reproduce and pass on their characteristics.



Biology Project // Darwin & The Beagle Voyage

Ceci Adem, our Biology teacher, gave us the task of choosing one of the aspects of Darwin that we liked the most, we took these activities from those project plans and we answered them based in the letters and diary entries Darwin wrote. I worked with Olivia Vidal in the topic 'Darwin and the Beagle Voyage'.

Activity 2

Read through the letter and diary extract and answer the letter questions. 

1. According to the letter to his father, what has caused Darwin difficulties and what is he enjoying?

The only difficulty he had, and he did not enjoy it at all, he had seasickness. He felt exhausted, had a feeling of being about to faint all time and he had to stay in his hammock a big part of the days he was affected with that illness. Now, talking about the things he enjoyed, we can notice the following; the voyage was extremely pleasant, in fact he find the ship as comfortable as his own house, he was exceedingly busy and although he was working, the trip was a great delight, strolling under cocoa nuts in a thicket of bananas and coffee plants and  an endless number of wild flowers, going to the quiet relaxing sea and seeing a variety of  plants.

2. From the letter and diary entry, do you think that the voyage has met Darwin’s expectations so far?

In part yes, but in part no. He, as he well describes in the letter to his father, he is really impressed by the landscapes. He is also enjoying all the animals he has been collecting, as they are part of incredible varies of species. What I think it wasn’t part of Darwin’s explanations and was suffered a lot, is te fact that it was reallly hot on the ship. The sun bothered all day and at night although it got a bit cooler, it was still hot.

3. How is Darwin feeling in his diary entry? Why does Darwin describes events differently here than in the letter to his father?

Darwin is somehow disapointed in this diary entry. I feel that he was starting to believe that life at the sea is perfect and that the only thing that was difficut was seasickness, but suddenly, this abundant and heavy heat appears and makes Darwin change his view about sea life. I think that he describes events different in both letters as to impress his dad, and not to dissapoint him, he tells him everything is perfect, that he is getting used to sea life although he actually isn’t. He also wants his father to be proud of his own son, so there you can see why he describes the events much different.  In the diary entry, as nno one else will see it he is really honest and tells just the facts without making a single lie in the timeline.

Visit the web pages from the Royal Museums Greenwich describing life at sea. Imagine you are going on an expedition for 5 years. Write down 3 things that
would be difficult and 3 things that you would enjoy .


What we would find difficult What we would enjoy
To get used to the poor rations of food and the dirt they carry with them. Capturing a booty or sharing a money prize among the other seamen.
To be sick in the ship, as there was nearly anything it could be done to help you, the only thing you could do to get better was to stay in your hammock. And if you needed surgery, it would be a dirty one with no anesthetic. Hanging out with the other seamen when we were off-duty. We would play cards, instruments, sing ‘Sea Shanties’, draw, tell tales. But especially, write letters home.
The hard punishments that captain would put and the extrict methods, to guarantee respect and obedience,the authorities used. Seeing a variety of sea animals and baing able to see the beautiful landscapes you can see when you are in a ship, such as the incredible sunsets and dawns.
Imagine you are Darwin; write a letter to your best friend describing a day at sea.


Activity 3

Read through the letter and diary extracts and answer the
letter questions.

1. According to the letter and diary entries, list the different things that Darwin has been collecting.

  • Marine animals
  • Insects
  • Undescribed species
  • Land animals
  • Spiders
  • Rocks
  • Brilliantly coloured flowers

2. In the letter and diary entries Darwin describes two different things that have impressed him most, what are they and what does he like about them?

As Darwin said, the Flora and Fauna (the landscapes and the animals). He found really impressing and incredible all the landscapes he had seen in Brazil, all the green they had and the amazing vegetation, flowers, plants and giant trees.  He was really impressed with the Fauna there because there were many animals he did not know, so he got to learn new things.

3. In the letter and diary entries Darwin mentions Claude and Humboldt, who is he referring to and why?

Humbdolt was a geographer, naturalist and explorer that proposed that the lands of the Atlantic Ocean (South America and Africa for example) were once joined and Claude was a  French physiologist.  (It doesn’t say anything more about them in the letter, Darwin just mentions them).

4. In the letter, how does he try to make his friend Fox envious of him?

By comparing what would Fox be doing at that moment and what he was doing at that momen. He compares both jobs and you an notice how proudnDarwin is for the trip he has made and the paradise he is in. »Think when you are picking insects off a hawthorn hedge on a
fine May day (wretchedly cold I have no doubt) think of me collecting amongst pineapples & orange trees; whilst staining your fingers with dirty blackberries, think & be envious of ripe oranges.»

5. How does he show how much he misses Fox at the end of the letter?

By going back to a serious tone. Previously, he was trying to make Fox jealous and he was joking, but when he is saying goodbye to Fox in thel letter, he comes back to his serious face again. »God Bless you. Believe me, Yours very affectionately
Charles Darwin»

Write a poem or create a word cloud in the shape of a map ofSouth America using Darwin’s words to describe the landscape that he sees.


Variation – Chapter 19

Today in Biology , Ceci gave us the task of answering the following questions, I worked with Renata Marty.

19.1 ) Decide wether each of these features shows continuous variation or discontinuous variation.

a)  Blood group in humans / discontinuous variation

b) Foot size in humans  / Continuous variation

c) Leaf lenght in a species of tree /  Continuous variation

d) Presence of horns in a cattle / Discontinuous variation

19.3 ) The photograph shows a small mammal called a tarsier. Tarsiers feed on insects, which they hunt at night.

How is the tarsier adapted for survival environment?

First of all, as his skin colour is somehow similar to the color of the trees, he can easily camuflage and so he can not be seen by predators. Secondly, his hands are perfect to climb trees, as he has 4 legs and his fingers perfectly match each other.



‘How I came to this world’ – Biology project

For this term we had the task of choosing between two projects, one about the stages of life and the other one was ‘ How I came to this world’, which was the one we have chosen. This project consisted in asking questions to your mother about some things when she was pregnant. If you want to take a look to the task click here.


Here you can find the oral presentation of the Prezi!

Click here